IT Interview Questions for Freshers

1. How to learn windows server 2016?
Answer: – To learn Windows Server 2016, you could go through online training cursers and certificates or classroom training provided by coaching centers. Please watch training videos and theory available on Internet. Also please go through below mentioned course and exam.
Introducing the Windows Server 2016 MCSA and the 70-740 Exam.

2. How to get the certification of windows server 2012?
Answer: – Please follow below link to prepare for the MCSA: Windows Server 2012 Certification (70-410, 70-411, and 70-412).
https://www.microsoft.com/en-in/learning/mcsa-windows-server-certification.aspx

3. How we get the MCSA windows server 2012 training?
Answer: – For MCSA: Windows Server 2012 R2 Training & Certification Courses. Please visit for class room training center or online training available on internet.

4. How we get the MCSA online training?
Answer: – Please check below mentioned link for MCSA online training
https://www.microsoft.com/en-in/learning/mcsa-certification.aspx
https://www.itonlinelearning.com/blog/complete-microsoft-mcsa-online-courses-guide/

5. What are the difference between 2008 and 2012 server?
Answer: – Basic difference between windows Server 2008 and windows Server 2012 is Operation System in Windows Server 2008 is 32 and 64 bit but Windows Server 2012 OS is only 64 bit. Please check below mentioned link to find out more differences between both.
https://social.technet.microsoft.com/wiki/contents/articles/30440.difference-between-windows-server-2008-windows-server-2012.aspx

6. What is broadcast domain in networking?
Answer: – A broadcast domain is a logical part or division of a computer network. In a broadcast domain, all the nodes can be reached via broadcast at the data link layer (OSI Layer 2). Broadcast domains are located within a network or multi-network segment. Multi-network segments require a bridge, such as the networking device.

7. What are broadcast domains?
Answer: – A broadcast domain is a logical part or division of a computer network. In a broadcast domain, all the nodes can be reached via broadcast at the data link layer (OSI Layer 2). Broadcast domains are located within a network or multi-network segment. Multi-network segments require a bridge, such as the networking device.

8. What is ITIL and how we ll get the ITIL certification?
Answer: – The ITIL Foundation certification would help to develop IT Service Management skills. The Foundation will introduce to the key elements, concepts and terminology. Need to qualify exam for ITIL certificate. Please go on Internet and search for ITIL class room training center or online training.

9. What is IP addressing in windows?
Answer: – An IP address, short for Internet Protocol address, is an identifying number for a piece of network hardware. Having an IP address allows a device to communicate with other devices over an IP-based network like the internet. In window based system ipconfig /all command will show all networking details in that system.

10. How many classes are there?
Answer: – Five IP address classes are available.
Class A,B,C,D & E. Please see the each class range and other details on Internet.

11. What is the valid broadcast ID?
Answer: – 255.255.255.255
12. What is subnetting mask?
Answer: – A Subnet mask is a 32-bit number that masks an IP address, and divides the IP address into network address and host address. Subnet Mask is made by setting network bits to all “1”s and setting host bits to all “0”s.

13. Explain the boot process of windows server?
Answer: –
First System is powered on.
The CMOS loads the BIOS and then runs POST.
Looks for the MBR on the bootable device.
Through the MBR the boot sector is located and the BOOTMGR is loaded.
BOOTMGR looks for active partition.
BOOTMGR reads the BCD file from the boot directory on the active partition.
The BCD (boot configuration database) contains various configurations. Parameters (this information was previously stored in the boot.ini)
BOOTMGR transfer control to the Windows Loader (winload.exe) or winresume.exe in case the system was hibernated.
Winloader loads drivers that are set to start at boot and then transfers the control to the windows kernel.
14. What is the Boot process of windows server?
Answer: – Same as mentioned in answer number 14.

15. What is BSOD?
Answer: – Blue screen of death (BSOD) is a Windows operating system error screen that is displayed to indicate system conflicts and the potential for a crash.

16. What is DNS?
Answer: – The Domain Name System (DNS) converts Internet domain and host names – like those in URLs from a Web browser – into IP addresses and vis vera.

17. What is DHCP?
Answer: – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network protocol that enables a server to automatically assign an IP address to a computer from a defined range of numbers

18. What is ADS?
Answer: –

19. How many DNS zones are there in windows?
Answer: –
Primary zone
Secondary zone
Active Directory-integrated zone
Reverse lookup zone
Stub zone
20. What is Raid?
Answer: – In windows server RAID was defined as redundant array of inexpensive disks, but now it usually refers to a redundant array of independent disks. RAID storage uses multiple disks in order to provide fault tolerance, to improve overall performance, and to increase storage capacity in a system.
21. What is the difference between basic and dynamic disks?
Answer: – Please go through below mentioned link to find out difference between basic & dynamic disks
http://www.partitionwizard.jp/help/what-are-basic-and-dynamic-disks.html
22. What is Nat?
Answer: – Network address translation is a method of remapping one IP address space into another by modifying network address information in the IP header of packets while they are in transit across a traffic routing device.
23. What is the difference between MBR and GPT?
Answer: – Master boot record (MBR) disks use the standard BIOS partition table. GUID partition table (GPT) disks use unified extensible firmware interface (UEFI).
Please go through below mentioned link for more details on it.
https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-difference-between-an-MBR-and-GPT-partition

24. What is hotspare?
Answer: – A hot spare, also called a hot standby, is a backup component that can be placed into service immediately when a primary component fails.

25. What are the major improvements are in 2012 R2?
Answer:-Please find out windows server 2012 R2 features from below mentioned link
https://mcpmag.com/articles/2013/06/20/windows-server-2012-r2.aspx

26. What is licensing?
Answer: – A software license is a document that provides legally binding guidelines for the use and distribution of software. Software licenses typically provide end users with the right to one or more copies of the software without violating copyrights.

27. What is Microsoft Azure and windows azure?
Answer: – Microsoft Azure (Windows Azure) Microsoft Azure, formerly known as Windows Azure, is Microsoft’s public cloud computing platform. We can pick and choose from these services to develop and scale new applications, or run existing applications, in the public cloud.

28. What is push model and pull model?

29. What is WBEM?
Answer: – WBEM is a set of management and Internet standard technologies developed to unify the management of distributed computing environments, facilitating the exchange of data across otherwise disparate technologies and platforms.

30. How CHKDSK tool work?
Answer : – (chkdsk) Check Disk examines the integrity of disks and can correct common errors on FAT16, FAT32, and NTFS drives

31. What is SMB?
Answer: – SMB Stands for “Server Message Block.” SMB is a network protocol used by Windows-based computers that allows systems within the same network to share files.

32. What is data De-duplication?
Answer: – Data deduplication is a data compression technique in which redundant or repeated copies of data are removed from a system.

33. What is NAP?
Answer: – Network Access Protection, or NAP, is a technology developed by Microsoft that was introduced in Windows Server 2008. It allows network and system administrators to define health parameters for computers connected to a network, and use those parameters to control network access. For example, if a computer is deemed “healthy,” it would be allowed full access to the network. However, if the predetermined conditions are not met, network access may be limited or blocked altogether.

34. What is PRTG traffic graphic?
Answer: – PRTG Traffic graph is easy to use Windows software for monitoring bandwidth usage as well as various other network parameters like memory and CPU.
35. What is virtualization?
Answer: – Virtualization refers to the creation of a virtual resource such as a server, desktop, operating system, file, storage or network.
The main goal of virtualization is to manage workloads by radically transforming traditional computing to make it more scalable. Virtualization has been a part of the IT landscape for decades now, and today it can be applied to a wide range of system layers, and three type are Virtualization as mentioned below.

Types of Virtualization

Server Virtualization
Network Virtualization
Desktop Virtualization
Please go through below mentioned link to read more about Virtualization.
https://www.vmware.com/in/solutions/virtualization.html

36. How we can learn VMware and get certified?
Answer: – There are many types of courses are availbe like online or class room to learn VMware and get certified. Please go through Google and search more about it.

37. How and from where we can get free e courses for VMware?
Answer: – Please search it on Google and on YouTube as a lot of study material is available in free for VMware.

38. Is there are any free e books for VMware available?
Answer: – N number of eBooks is available on Internet so please search it and download as per requirements.

39. What is ESXI and how it works?
Answer: – ESXi is an operating system-independent hypervisor based on the VMkernel operating system interfacing with agents that run atop it. This is type-1 hypervisor and developed by VMware. Please see below mentioned link to read more about it and how it works.
https://www.vmware.com/techpapers/2007/architecture-of-vmware-esxi-1009.html

40. How NIC cards work for connection in VMware?
Answer: – NIC gives physical connectivity for VMware

41. What is Vsphere?
Answer:- vSphere client is a product suite, vSphere Client is installed on laptop or desktop PC and is used to access ESXi Server to install and manage virtual machines on ESXi server. vCenter server is installed as virtual machine on top of ESXi server.
42. Difference between IPV4 & IPV6?
Answer: – IPV4 is 32 bit and IPV6 is 64 bit.

43. What is anycast address?
Answer: – In anycast, a collection of servers share the same IP address and send data from a source computer to the server topographically closest.

44. How to get LUN id in VMware?
Answer:- On esxi host, go to configuration tab, storage adapters, then highlight the vmhba (fc or iscsi) that the lun is on. Change from “devices” tab to “paths” tab Scroll to target. There, we will find the system id of the netapp filer.
Please go through on Internet for more details on this topic.

45. What are snapshot, clone, and template?
Answer:- Please see more details on mentioned link.

VMware Interview Questions and answers : Difference Between Clone And Template

46. Difference between Snapshot/clone/template?
Answer: – A snapshot is copy of the virtual machine’s disk file at a given point in time.Snapshots provide a change log for the virtual disk and are used to restore a VM to a particular point in time when a failure or system error occurs. A template is a master copy of a virtual machine that can be used to create many clones.
Please see more details on mentioned link.

VMware Interview Questions and answers : Difference Between Clone And Template

47. What is the role of vcenter?
Answer: – VMware vCenter Server provides a centralized platform for managing VMware vSphere environments, allowing automating and delivering a virtual infrastructure across the hybrid cloud with confidence.
Please see more details on mentioned link.
https://www.vmware.com/in/products/vcenter-server.html

48. What is VSAN?
Answer: – VMware vSAN is an software defined storage solution from VMware to eliminate the need of the additional storage boxes using the local server.
Please see more details on mentioned link.
https://searchstorage.techtarget.com/definition/virtual-storage-area-network

49. Explain Types of virtualization?
Answer: – Virtualization can take many forms depending on the type of application use and hardware utilization. The main types are listed below:
1. Hardware Virtualization
2. Software Virtualization
3. Memory Virtualization
4. Storage Virtualization
5. Data Virtualization
6. Network Virtualization
7. Desktop Virtualization
Please see more details on mentioned link.
https://redswitches.com/blog/different-types-virtualization-cloud-computing-explained/

50. How we create the cluster?
Answer: – A cluster is a group of hosts. When a host is added to a cluster, the host’s resources become part of the cluster’s resources. The cluster manages the resources of all hosts within it. Clusters enable the vSphere High Availability (HA) and vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) solutions.
Please follow below mentioned like to see more details to create cluster.
https://pubs.vmware.com/vsphere-51/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.vmware.vsphere.vcenterhost.doc%2FGUID-3116DAE5-0C30-4AFD-B129-8DAB54AF7384.html

51. How we do ESXI installation?
Answer: – Please follow below mentioned step-by-step instation mentioned in below mentioned link to install ESXi.
https://pubs.vmware.com/vsphere-51/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.vmware.vsphere.solutions.doc%2FGUID-0A264828-3933-4F4F-82D7-B5006A90CDBA.html

52. What is plug-ins?
Answer: – vCenter Server plug-ins extend the capabilities of vCenter Server by providing more features and functions. Like hardware status, update manager and many more.
Please see more details on mentioned link.
https://pubs.vmware.com/vsphere-51/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.vmware.vsphere.vcenterhost.doc%2FGUID-BCBA66C3-AECA-48A0-B139-3FC59EB42880.html

53. What are uplinks?
Answer: – uplinks are use for the connectivity between premises Network.
54. What is DCUI?
Answer: – The DCUI is a menu-based interface that is accessed from the host console and used to configure ESXi running on vSphere hosts.
55. What are private Vlan and its types?
Answer: – Private VLAN is isolated VLAN that does not communicate with other isolated VLAN.

56. Explain NIC teaming?
Answer: – NIC Teaming is a feature which provides the Network redundancy & load balance the traffic. NIC teaming requires at least 2 NIC’s to configure NIC Teaming. NIC Teaming groups the multiple NIC into one single logical NIC which will help when one NIC fails to load or network fails.

57. Network problem troubleshooting?
Answer: – Network problem troubleshooting Steps are mentioned below:-
Step 1: Check WAN and LAN connections
Step 2: Verify wireless adapter
Step 3: Verify AP and router settings
Step 4: Verify TCP/IP settings
Step 5. Verify network connection with Ping
Step 6: Check wireless-specific issues
Step 7: Look for a security mismatch
Step 8: Ensure RADIUS is working
Step 9: Check intermittent network connectivity issues

58. Types of data stores?
Answer: – TYPES OF VMWARE DATASTORES

VMware ESXi supports three type of storage configuration when connecting to the shared storage array:
VMFS: virtual machine files system Data store.
NAS: Network attached storage Data store.
RDM: Raw device mapping Data store.
The shared storage is required for the HA (high –availability), DRS (distributed resource scheduler), Vmotion and fault tolerance.