IT Interview Questions for Freshers

1. How to learn windows server 2016?
Answer: – To learn Windows Server 2016, you could go through online training cursers and certificates or classroom training provided by coaching centers. Please watch training videos and theory available on Internet. Also please go through below mentioned course and exam.
Introducing the Windows Server 2016 MCSA and the 70-740 Exam.

2. How to get the certification of windows server 2012?
Answer: – Please follow below link to prepare for the MCSA: Windows Server 2012 Certification (70-410, 70-411, and 70-412).
https://www.microsoft.com/en-in/learning/mcsa-windows-server-certification.aspx

3. How we get the MCSA windows server 2012 training?
Answer: – For MCSA: Windows Server 2012 R2 Training & Certification Courses. Please visit for class room training center or online training available on internet.

4. How we get the MCSA online training?
Answer: – Please check below mentioned link for MCSA online training
https://www.microsoft.com/en-in/learning/mcsa-certification.aspx
https://www.itonlinelearning.com/blog/complete-microsoft-mcsa-online-courses-guide/

5. What are the difference between 2008 and 2012 server?
Answer: – Basic difference between windows Server 2008 and windows Server 2012 is Operation System in Windows Server 2008 is 32 and 64 bit but Windows Server 2012 OS is only 64 bit. Please check below mentioned link to find out more differences between both.
https://social.technet.microsoft.com/wiki/contents/articles/30440.difference-between-windows-server-2008-windows-server-2012.aspx

6. What is broadcast domain in networking?
Answer: – A broadcast domain is a logical part or division of a computer network. In a broadcast domain, all the nodes can be reached via broadcast at the data link layer (OSI Layer 2). Broadcast domains are located within a network or multi-network segment. Multi-network segments require a bridge, such as the networking device.

7. What are broadcast domains?
Answer: – A broadcast domain is a logical part or division of a computer network. In a broadcast domain, all the nodes can be reached via broadcast at the data link layer (OSI Layer 2). Broadcast domains are located within a network or multi-network segment. Multi-network segments require a bridge, such as the networking device.

8. What is ITIL and how we ll get the ITIL certification?
Answer: – The ITIL Foundation certification would help to develop IT Service Management skills. The Foundation will introduce to the key elements, concepts and terminology. Need to qualify exam for ITIL certificate. Please go on Internet and search for ITIL class room training center or online training.

9. What is IP addressing in windows?
Answer: – An IP address, short for Internet Protocol address, is an identifying number for a piece of network hardware. Having an IP address allows a device to communicate with other devices over an IP-based network like the internet. In window based system ipconfig /all command will show all networking details in that system.

10. How many classes are there?
Answer: – Five IP address classes are available.
Class A,B,C,D & E. Please see the each class range and other details on Internet.

11. What is the valid broadcast ID?
Answer: – 255.255.255.255
12. What is subnetting mask?
Answer: – A Subnet mask is a 32-bit number that masks an IP address, and divides the IP address into network address and host address. Subnet Mask is made by setting network bits to all “1”s and setting host bits to all “0”s.

13. Explain the boot process of windows server?
Answer: –
First System is powered on.
The CMOS loads the BIOS and then runs POST.
Looks for the MBR on the bootable device.
Through the MBR the boot sector is located and the BOOTMGR is loaded.
BOOTMGR looks for active partition.
BOOTMGR reads the BCD file from the boot directory on the active partition.
The BCD (boot configuration database) contains various configurations. Parameters (this information was previously stored in the boot.ini)
BOOTMGR transfer control to the Windows Loader (winload.exe) or winresume.exe in case the system was hibernated.
Winloader loads drivers that are set to start at boot and then transfers the control to the windows kernel.
14. What is the Boot process of windows server?
Answer: – Same as mentioned in answer number 14.

15. What is BSOD?
Answer: – Blue screen of death (BSOD) is a Windows operating system error screen that is displayed to indicate system conflicts and the potential for a crash.

16. What is DNS?
Answer: – The Domain Name System (DNS) converts Internet domain and host names – like those in URLs from a Web browser – into IP addresses and vis vera.

17. What is DHCP?
Answer: – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network protocol that enables a server to automatically assign an IP address to a computer from a defined range of numbers

18. What is ADS?
Answer: –

19. How many DNS zones are there in windows?
Answer: –
Primary zone
Secondary zone
Active Directory-integrated zone
Reverse lookup zone
Stub zone
20. What is Raid?
Answer: – In windows server RAID was defined as redundant array of inexpensive disks, but now it usually refers to a redundant array of independent disks. RAID storage uses multiple disks in order to provide fault tolerance, to improve overall performance, and to increase storage capacity in a system.
21. What is the difference between basic and dynamic disks?
Answer: – Please go through below mentioned link to find out difference between basic & dynamic disks
http://www.partitionwizard.jp/help/what-are-basic-and-dynamic-disks.html
22. What is Nat?
Answer: – Network address translation is a method of remapping one IP address space into another by modifying network address information in the IP header of packets while they are in transit across a traffic routing device.
23. What is the difference between MBR and GPT?
Answer: – Master boot record (MBR) disks use the standard BIOS partition table. GUID partition table (GPT) disks use unified extensible firmware interface (UEFI).
Please go through below mentioned link for more details on it.
https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-difference-between-an-MBR-and-GPT-partition

24. What is hotspare?
Answer: – A hot spare, also called a hot standby, is a backup component that can be placed into service immediately when a primary component fails.

25. What are the major improvements are in 2012 R2?
Answer:-Please find out windows server 2012 R2 features from below mentioned link
https://mcpmag.com/articles/2013/06/20/windows-server-2012-r2.aspx

26. What is licensing?
Answer: – A software license is a document that provides legally binding guidelines for the use and distribution of software. Software licenses typically provide end users with the right to one or more copies of the software without violating copyrights.

27. What is Microsoft Azure and windows azure?
Answer: – Microsoft Azure (Windows Azure) Microsoft Azure, formerly known as Windows Azure, is Microsoft’s public cloud computing platform. We can pick and choose from these services to develop and scale new applications, or run existing applications, in the public cloud.

28. What is push model and pull model?

29. What is WBEM?
Answer: – WBEM is a set of management and Internet standard technologies developed to unify the management of distributed computing environments, facilitating the exchange of data across otherwise disparate technologies and platforms.

30. How CHKDSK tool work?
Answer : – (chkdsk) Check Disk examines the integrity of disks and can correct common errors on FAT16, FAT32, and NTFS drives

31. What is SMB?
Answer: – SMB Stands for “Server Message Block.” SMB is a network protocol used by Windows-based computers that allows systems within the same network to share files.

32. What is data De-duplication?
Answer: – Data deduplication is a data compression technique in which redundant or repeated copies of data are removed from a system.

33. What is NAP?
Answer: – Network Access Protection, or NAP, is a technology developed by Microsoft that was introduced in Windows Server 2008. It allows network and system administrators to define health parameters for computers connected to a network, and use those parameters to control network access. For example, if a computer is deemed “healthy,” it would be allowed full access to the network. However, if the predetermined conditions are not met, network access may be limited or blocked altogether.

34. What is PRTG traffic graphic?
Answer: – PRTG Traffic graph is easy to use Windows software for monitoring bandwidth usage as well as various other network parameters like memory and CPU.
35. What is virtualization?
Answer: – Virtualization refers to the creation of a virtual resource such as a server, desktop, operating system, file, storage or network.
The main goal of virtualization is to manage workloads by radically transforming traditional computing to make it more scalable. Virtualization has been a part of the IT landscape for decades now, and today it can be applied to a wide range of system layers, and three type are Virtualization as mentioned below.

Types of Virtualization

Server Virtualization
Network Virtualization
Desktop Virtualization
Please go through below mentioned link to read more about Virtualization.
https://www.vmware.com/in/solutions/virtualization.html

36. How we can learn VMware and get certified?
Answer: – There are many types of courses are availbe like online or class room to learn VMware and get certified. Please go through Google and search more about it.

37. How and from where we can get free e courses for VMware?
Answer: – Please search it on Google and on YouTube as a lot of study material is available in free for VMware.

38. Is there are any free e books for VMware available?
Answer: – N number of eBooks is available on Internet so please search it and download as per requirements.

39. What is ESXI and how it works?
Answer: – ESXi is an operating system-independent hypervisor based on the VMkernel operating system interfacing with agents that run atop it. This is type-1 hypervisor and developed by VMware. Please see below mentioned link to read more about it and how it works.
https://www.vmware.com/techpapers/2007/architecture-of-vmware-esxi-1009.html

40. How NIC cards work for connection in VMware?
Answer: – NIC gives physical connectivity for VMware

41. What is Vsphere?
Answer:- vSphere client is a product suite, vSphere Client is installed on laptop or desktop PC and is used to access ESXi Server to install and manage virtual machines on ESXi server. vCenter server is installed as virtual machine on top of ESXi server.
42. Difference between IPV4 & IPV6?
Answer: – IPV4 is 32 bit and IPV6 is 64 bit.

43. What is anycast address?
Answer: – In anycast, a collection of servers share the same IP address and send data from a source computer to the server topographically closest.

44. How to get LUN id in VMware?
Answer:- On esxi host, go to configuration tab, storage adapters, then highlight the vmhba (fc or iscsi) that the lun is on. Change from “devices” tab to “paths” tab Scroll to target. There, we will find the system id of the netapp filer.
Please go through on Internet for more details on this topic.

45. What are snapshot, clone, and template?
Answer:- Please see more details on mentioned link.

VMware Interview Questions and answers : Difference Between Clone And Template

46. Difference between Snapshot/clone/template?
Answer: – A snapshot is copy of the virtual machine’s disk file at a given point in time.Snapshots provide a change log for the virtual disk and are used to restore a VM to a particular point in time when a failure or system error occurs. A template is a master copy of a virtual machine that can be used to create many clones.
Please see more details on mentioned link.

VMware Interview Questions and answers : Difference Between Clone And Template

47. What is the role of vcenter?
Answer: – VMware vCenter Server provides a centralized platform for managing VMware vSphere environments, allowing automating and delivering a virtual infrastructure across the hybrid cloud with confidence.
Please see more details on mentioned link.
https://www.vmware.com/in/products/vcenter-server.html

48. What is VSAN?
Answer: – VMware vSAN is an software defined storage solution from VMware to eliminate the need of the additional storage boxes using the local server.
Please see more details on mentioned link.
https://searchstorage.techtarget.com/definition/virtual-storage-area-network

49. Explain Types of virtualization?
Answer: – Virtualization can take many forms depending on the type of application use and hardware utilization. The main types are listed below:
1. Hardware Virtualization
2. Software Virtualization
3. Memory Virtualization
4. Storage Virtualization
5. Data Virtualization
6. Network Virtualization
7. Desktop Virtualization
Please see more details on mentioned link.
https://redswitches.com/blog/different-types-virtualization-cloud-computing-explained/

50. How we create the cluster?
Answer: – A cluster is a group of hosts. When a host is added to a cluster, the host’s resources become part of the cluster’s resources. The cluster manages the resources of all hosts within it. Clusters enable the vSphere High Availability (HA) and vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) solutions.
Please follow below mentioned like to see more details to create cluster.
https://pubs.vmware.com/vsphere-51/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.vmware.vsphere.vcenterhost.doc%2FGUID-3116DAE5-0C30-4AFD-B129-8DAB54AF7384.html

51. How we do ESXI installation?
Answer: – Please follow below mentioned step-by-step instation mentioned in below mentioned link to install ESXi.
https://pubs.vmware.com/vsphere-51/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.vmware.vsphere.solutions.doc%2FGUID-0A264828-3933-4F4F-82D7-B5006A90CDBA.html

52. What is plug-ins?
Answer: – vCenter Server plug-ins extend the capabilities of vCenter Server by providing more features and functions. Like hardware status, update manager and many more.
Please see more details on mentioned link.
https://pubs.vmware.com/vsphere-51/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.vmware.vsphere.vcenterhost.doc%2FGUID-BCBA66C3-AECA-48A0-B139-3FC59EB42880.html

53. What are uplinks?
Answer: – uplinks are use for the connectivity between premises Network.
54. What is DCUI?
Answer: – The DCUI is a menu-based interface that is accessed from the host console and used to configure ESXi running on vSphere hosts.
55. What are private Vlan and its types?
Answer: – Private VLAN is isolated VLAN that does not communicate with other isolated VLAN.

56. Explain NIC teaming?
Answer: – NIC Teaming is a feature which provides the Network redundancy & load balance the traffic. NIC teaming requires at least 2 NIC’s to configure NIC Teaming. NIC Teaming groups the multiple NIC into one single logical NIC which will help when one NIC fails to load or network fails.

57. Network problem troubleshooting?
Answer: – Network problem troubleshooting Steps are mentioned below:-
Step 1: Check WAN and LAN connections
Step 2: Verify wireless adapter
Step 3: Verify AP and router settings
Step 4: Verify TCP/IP settings
Step 5. Verify network connection with Ping
Step 6: Check wireless-specific issues
Step 7: Look for a security mismatch
Step 8: Ensure RADIUS is working
Step 9: Check intermittent network connectivity issues

58. Types of data stores?
Answer: – TYPES OF VMWARE DATASTORES

VMware ESXi supports three type of storage configuration when connecting to the shared storage array:
VMFS: virtual machine files system Data store.
NAS: Network attached storage Data store.
RDM: Raw device mapping Data store.
The shared storage is required for the HA (high –availability), DRS (distributed resource scheduler), Vmotion and fault tolerance.

GCP Part 1 – Google Cloud Platform – How to Start?

Welcome All, This blog is basically for beginners who have just started learning about Google Cloud Platform (GCP).

First question come into mind that how shall we start exploring Google Cloud Platform. We need a platform where we can take console and start doing some L1 task.

In this series of learning, we are going to tell you the exact thing assuming you as a fresher in this technology.

First topic we are going to cover is How to Start with Google Cloud Platform?

Before doing anything, let me tell you that since you are going to learn Cloud so you do not need any specific hardware in you home lab. You don’t need physical switch, storage, server or anything that cost you to build a lab.

You just need a desktop or laptop with low configuration from where you can access a web browser. Additional to this, you need to spend 2 INR to register youself on google cloud portal for free learning of 365 days.

So, question is: How and Where shall I jump to? So let’s take a quick step to step guide here.

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  • Login using your Gmail ID. If you do not have a Gmail ID, Sign up for new one. It does not cost anything.

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  • Select your country and Accept agreements.

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  • Fill out the required information.
    • Select Account Type: Individual
    • Tax information: Unregistered individual
    • Provide your PAN information
    • Fill your Name and Address

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  • Enter your Credit or Debit card number to make sure that you are not a robot. Don’t worry, you will be only charged 2 INR from you card. And google DO NOT auto-charge after free trial(365 days) ends.
  • Click on Start my Free Trail.
  • Once you will proceed, it will deduct 2 INR from your card. You are ready to start your free trail now.

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  • Here is First Console for accessing Google Cloud Platform resources. You can use these resources in multiple ways. We will learn in next coming blogs.

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  • You can also verify your account status by clicking on Navigation Menu > Billing > Overview.

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That’s all from this topic. We will learn more about Google Cloud Platform in next coming blogs. Stay Tuned.

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UNIX/Linux Basic Command Reference

File Commands

ls – directory listing

ls -all – formatted listing with hidden files

cd dir– change directory

cd– change to home

pwd– show current directory

mkdir dir– create a directory dir

rm file– delete file

rm -r dir– delete directory dir

rm -f file– force remove file

rm -rf dir– force remove directory dir*

cp file1 file2– copy file1 to file2

cp -r dir1 dir2 – copy dir1 -copy dir1 to dir2; create dir2 if it doesn’t exist

mv file1 file2– rename or move file1 to file2 if file2 is an existing directory, moves file1 into directory file2

ln -s file link– create symbolic link link to file

touch file– create or update file

cat > file-places standard input into file

more file– output the contents of file

head file– output the first 10 lines of file

tail file– output the last 10 lines of file

tail -f file– output the contents of file as it grows, starting with the last 10 lines

Process Management 

ps-display your currently active process

top– display all running process

kill pid– kill process id pid

killall proc– kill all processes named proc *

bg– lists stopped or background jobs; resume a stopped job in the background

fg n– brings job n to the foreground

 

File Permission

chmod octal file– change permission of file to octal, which can be found separately for user,group, and world by adding:

  • 4 – read(r)
  • 2 – write(w)
  • 1 – execute(x)

Examples:

chmod 777 – read, write, execute for all

chmod 755 – rwx for owner, rx for group and world, for more option see man chmod.

 

SSH

ssh user@host – connect to host as user

ssh -p port user@host – connect to host on port, port as user

ssh – copy-id user@host -add your key to host for user to enable a keyed or passwordless login

 

Searching 

grep pattern files – search for pattern in files

grep -r pattern dir – search recursively for pattern in dir

command | grep pattern – search for pattern in the output of command

locate file – find all instances of file

 

System Info

date – show the current date and time

cal – show this month’s calender

uptime – show current uptime

W – display who is online

whoami – who you are logged in as

finger user – display information about user

uname -a – show kernel information

cat /proc/meminfo – memory information

man command – show the manual  for command

df – show disk usage

du – show directory space usage

free – show memory and swap usage

whereis app – show possible locations of app

which app – show which app will be run by default

 

Compression

tar cf file.tar files – create a tar named file.tar containing files

tar xf file.tar – extract the files from file tar

tar czf file.tar.gz files – extract a tar using Gzip

tar cjf file.tar.bz2 – create a tar with Bzip2 compression

Network

ping host – ping host and output results

whois domain – get whois information for domain

dig domain – get DNS information for domain

dig -x host – reverse lookup host

wget f – download file

wget -c file – continue a stopped download

 

Installation

install from source:

./configure make make install.

dpkg -i pkg.deb – install a package (Debian)

rpm -Uvh pkg.rpm – install a package (RPM)

 

Shortcuts

Ctrl+C – halts the current command

Ctrl+Z – stops the current command resume with fg in the foreground or bg in the background

Ctrl+D – logout the current session similar to exit

Ctrl+W – erases one word in the current line

Ctrl+U – erases the whole line

Ctrl+R – type to bring up a recent command

!! – repeats the last command

exit – log out of current session

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How to – Install OpenFiler Storage

Here is Step by Step procedure to install OpenFiler. We were exploring the same in our Home lab.

Steps: –

  • Click on New Virtual Machine and Select typical and Click Next.

1

  • Click on Installer Disc image file and click Next.

2

  • Select the Operating system and click Next

3

  • Click on browse and select the path drive and click Next.

4

  • Click on Next.

5

  • Click on customize hardware.

6

  • Click on Next.

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  • Select US Keyboard and click Next.

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  • Select No and click Next.

cp-san-01-2018-07-24-04-10-08

  • Click Next.

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  • Choose  No  and click Next.

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  • Insert the host domain name and click next

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  • Enable the IPv4 support and configure IP address and click next

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  • Set manually host domain name and configure gateway primary DNS and click next

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  • Select the time Zone Asia/Calcutta and click Next.

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  • Insert  the root password and click Next.

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  • Click on Next.

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  • Formatting setup.

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  • Press reboot system.

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  • Welcome to OpenFiler  Screen

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For more detailed information on Installation of OpenFiler, please refer to below articles.

Installation of OpenFiler:

Step by Step Installation Guide for Using Openfiler as Shared Storage in ESXi and vSphere Environment

Configuration of OpenFiler:

Step by Step Configuration Guide for Using Openfiler as Shared Storage in ESXi and vSphere Environment

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How To – Enable NIC Teaming in Windows 10 using PowerShell

Hey All, Today I am going to write a blog on How to Enable NIC teaming in Windows 10 Operating System.

While I was configuring my home lab, I had planned to use existing two Network Adaptors as NIC teaming on a Windows 10 machine. I had explored the same and thought to share with you if you are also planning to configure NIC teaming in your environment. Here is PowerShell command you can use.

PowerShell Command to Enable NIC Teaming: –

New-NetLbfoTeam TeamName "[NIC1_NAME]","[NIC2_NAME]"

Steps: –

  • Login to Windows 10 Machine
  • Click Start and Search PowerShell.
  • Right Click on PowerShell and Open it as Administrator.
  • Type below command and press Enter.
New-NetLbfoTeam TeamName "[NIC1_NAME]","[NIC2_NAME]"
  • It will give a success message. Refer to below example.
  • Now you can check from ncpa.cpl (Type in Run), it will show Team Network Adaptor there.
  • Now configure IP address in Team Network Adaptor.

Example: –

Existing Network Adaptors

NIC

Command in PowerShell

NIC Teaming Success

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